Baking Powder 1 teaspoon 1 teaspoon baking soda + 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar
Balsamic Vinegar 1 tablespoon 1 tablespoon sherry or cider vinegar
Beer 1 cup 1 cup non-alcoholic beer, apple cider
Bread Crumbs, dry 1/4 cup 1/4 cup finely crushed cracker crumbs, corn flakes
Brown Sugar, packed 1 cup 1 cup granulated sugar or 2 cups powdered sugar
Broth, chicken or vegetable 1 cup 1 teaspoon or 1cube bouillon granules (chicken or vegetable), dissolved in 1cup of boiling water
Butter Any amount Margarine
Buttermilk, or sour milk 1 cup 1 tablespoon lemon juice or white vinegar plus enough milk to make the amount 1 cup. Let the paneer come out & you will get sour milk.
Chocolate, semisweet chips 1 cup 6 ounces semisweet baking chocolate, chopped
Chocolate, unsweetened, baking 1 ounce 3 tablespoons baking cocoa plus 1 tablespoon shortening or margarine
Cornstarch 1 tablespoon 2 tablespoons all-purpose flour
Corn Syrup, light 1 cup 1 cup sugar plus 1/4 cup water
Corn Syrup, dark 1 cup 1 cup light corn syrup; or 3/4 cup light corn syrup plus 1/4 cup molasses
Eggs 1 large 2 egg whites; or 2 eggs yolks (for custards and puddings): or 2 egg yolks plus 1 tablespoon water (for cookies and bars)
Farmer Cheese Cottage cheese, ricotta, cream cheese
Flour, all-purpose 1 cup 1 cup plus 2 tablespoons of cake flour
Flour, cake 1 cup 1 cup minus 2 tablespoons of all-purpose flour
Flour,self-rising 1 cup 1 cup all-purpose flour plus 1/2 teaspoon baking powder and 1/2 teaspoon salt
Garlic, finely chopped 1 medium clove 1/8 teaspoon garlic powder
Ginger, grated or chopped 1 teaspoon 3/4 teaspoon ground ginger
Heavy Cream 1 cup 3/4 cup milk plus 1/3 cup butter or 3/4 cup milk plus 1/4 cup shortening/butter or 2/3 cup evaporated milk.
Honey 1 cup 1-1/4 cups sugar plus 1/4 cup water of apple juice
Lemon Juice, fresh 1 tablespoon 1 tablespoon bottled lemon juice from concentrate, or white vinegar
Light Cream 1 cup 1/2 cup heavy cream plus 1/2 cup milk or  7/8 cup milk plus 3 Tbsp. butter or   1/2 cup evaporated milk plus 1/2 cup milk.
Milk, regular or low-fat 1 cup 1/2 cup evaporated milk plus 1/2 cup water
Mustard seeds 1 tablespoon 1 teaspoon ground mustard (dry)
Onion Juice 1 tablespoon 1/3 tsp. onion powder or 3/4 tsp. minced dried onion or 1/4 tsp. onion paste.
Onion Powder 1 tablespoon 2 tbsp. minced dried onion or 2 tsp. onion paste or 5 tbsp. onion juice.
Raisins 1/2 cup 1/2 cup currants, dried cherries, dried cranberries, chopped dates
Red Pepper Sauce 3-4 drops 1/8 teaspoon ground red pepper (cayenne)
Ricotta Cheese Cottage cheese, liquid drained or cream cheese in small amounts.
Sour Cream 1 cup 2 Tbsp. white vinegar plus enough milk to make 1 cup, let stand 5 minutes before using or   1 tbsp. lemon juice and enough evaporated milk to make 1 cup/1 cup plain yogurt or cottage cheese mixed with yogurt and if desired, 2 Tbsp. milk and 1 Tbsp. lemon juice, blend well or 6 oz cream cheese and 3 Tbsp. milk.
Tomato Juice 1 cup 2 - 3 ripe tomatoes, peeled, blended in food processor with salt and lemon juice to taste; 1/2 cup tomato sauce plus 1/2 cup water
Tomato Puree 1cup Tomato sauce or 1/3 cup tomato paste plus 1/2 cup water.
Tomato Sauce 2 cups 3/4 cup tomato paste plus 1 cup water or 2 cups tomato puree.
Tomato paste 1 tbsp. 1/4 cup tomato sauce plus eliminate some other liquid from the recipe.
Tomatoes, canned 1 cup About 1-1/3 cups cut-up fresh tomatoes, simmered 10 minutes
Whipping Cream 1 cup, sweetened 4 oz package frozen whipped cream topping or 1 cup nonfat dry milk powder whipped with 1 cup ice water and sweetened to taste.
Yeast, regular 1 package (1/4 ounce) 2-1/4 teaspoons regular
Yogurt, plain 1 cup 1 cup sour cream